After taking a week off for Thanksgiving, we move on to another equation problem.
The problem: Root of Modulus 1. This is problem AN10 in the appendix.
The description: Given a set of ordered pairs () through () of integers, each is non-negative. Can we find a complex number where = 1 such that =0?
Example: It was hard for me to come up with an interesting example (where is not just 1 or i), so thanks to this StackOverflow post for giving me something I could use.
Let our ordered pairs be (5,2), (-6,1), and (5,0). This gives us the polynomial 5x2-6x+5. Plugging these into the quadratic formula get us the roots , which is on the complex unit circle.
Reduction: This one is again from Plaisted’s 1984 paper. It again uses his polynomial that we’ve seen in some other problems (most recently Non-Divisibility of a Product Polynomial). So again, we start with a 3SAT instance and build the polynomial. He starts by showing that if you have a polynomial with real coefficients p(z), then p(z)*p(1/z) is a real, non-negative polynomial on the complex unit circle, and it has zeros on the unit circle exactly where p(z) does.
Then, we can do this for the sum of the polynomials made out of each clause, which means that this new polynomial has 0’s on the unit circle exactly where the original one did. Which means it has a 0 on the complex unit circle if and only if the formula was consistent.
Difficulty: 8. I’m starting to appreciate the coolness of turning a formula into a polynomial, and how it makes a lot of problems easier. I just wish it was clearer to see how it all works.