- February 2019
- January 2019
- December 2018
- November 2018
- October 2018
- September 2018
- August 2018
- July 2018
- June 2018
- May 2018
- April 2018
- March 2018
- February 2018
- January 2018
- December 2017
- November 2017
- October 2017
- September 2017
- August 2017
- July 2017
- June 2017
- May 2017
- April 2017
- March 2017
- February 2017
- January 2017
- December 2016
- November 2016
- October 2016
- September 2016
- August 2016
- July 2016
- June 2016
- May 2016
- April 2016
- March 2016
- February 2016
- January 2016
- December 2015
- November 2015
- October 2015
- September 2015
- August 2015
- July 2015
- June 2015
- May 2015
- April 2015
- March 2015
- February 2015
- January 2015
- December 2014
- November 2014
- October 2014
- September 2014
- August 2014
- July 2014
- June 2014
- Algebra and Number Theory
- Appendix- Algebra and Number Theory
- Appendix- Automata and Language Theory
- Appendix- Mathematical Programming
- Appendix- Network Design
- Appendix- Program Optimization
- Appendix- Sets and Partitions
- Appendix-Graph Theory
- Appendix: Sequencing and Scheduling
- Appendix: Storage and Retrieval
- Chapter 3 Exercises
- Core Problems
- Problems not in appendix
Monthly Archives: April 2016
I told Daniel when he gave me his Monotone Satisfiability reduction that the actual problem mentioned in G&J was Monotone 3-Satisfiability. So he went off and did that reduction too.
Monotone 3 SAT. This is a more restrictive case of Monotone SAT
Given an formula of clauses where each clause in contains all negated or non-negated variables, and each clause contains at most variables. Does there exist an assignment of the variables so that is satisfied?
the following assignment satisfies :
And the following is in Monotone 3SAT form:
are both unsatisfiable.
In the following reduction we are given an instance of 3SAT,
. Here each clause is of the form:
and each is a literal of the form .
We use the following construction to build an instance of Monotone 3 SAT out of the above instance of 3SAT :
In each clause we have at most one literal, that is not of the same parity as the rest of the literals in the clause. For every such literal, we may preform the following substitution:
this yields a modified clause .
Now we must be able to guarantee that and are mapped to opposite truth values, so we introduce the new clause:
and conjunct it onto our old formula producing a new formula .
so we preform the substitution
Now repeating this procedure will result in a new formula: .
We claim logical equivalence between the and This is semantically intuitive as the clause requires all substituted literal in to take the value opposite of this was the stipulation for the substitution initially. It is also verifiable by truth table construction for:
If there exists a truth assignment that satisfies , then we may extent this truth assignment to produce which will satisfy
by letting for all and letting for all .
Obviously if is satisfiable must be by the above construction of . So by the above claim we have that will satisfy .
Continuing from the above, if we have a truth assignment that satisfies , then by the claim above it also must satisfy . And is a sub-formula of so any truth assignment that satisfies must also satisfy .
(Back to me)
Difficulty: 4, since it’s a little harder than the regular Monotone Sat one.
This semester I’m doing an independent study with a student, Daniel Thornton, looking at NP-Complete problems. He came up with a reduction for Monotone Satisfiability, and since I hadn’t gotten to that problem yet, I told him if he wrote it up, I’d post it.
So, here it is. Take it away, Daniel!
The Problem: Monotone SAT. This is mentioned in problem LO2 in the book.
Given an set of clauses where each clause in F contains all negated or non-negated variables, is there an assignment of the variables so that is satisfied?
the following assignment satisfies :
In the following reduction we are given an instance of SAT, with the clauses:
. Here each clause is of the form and each is a literal of the form
Now we build an instance of Monotone SAT from the instance of SAT given above:
For each we construct two new clauses and , such that all elements of are non-negated literals and all terms in are negated literals with the addition of the new special term . Now let us build a new formula this is our instance of Monotone SAT, clauses are either all non-negated or negated.
Notice how we added the extra literal or to each of the clauses or respectfully. Now if there is an assignment that satisfies all of the clauses of then as only or may be satisfied by the appended extra literal, one of the clauses must be satisfied by it’s other literals. These literals are also in so such an assignment satisfies all .
Using an argument similar to the one above, For to be satisfied there must be at least one literal assignment say that satisfies each clause Now is in either or . This implies that at least one of or is also satisfied by , so simply assign the new term accordingly to satisfy the clause in not satisfied by
(back to me again)
Difficulty: 3. I like that the reduction involves manipulating the formula, instead of applying logical identities.